1.7 15个Pythonic的代码示例


Python由于语言的简洁性,让我们以人类思考的方式来写代码,新手更容易上手,老鸟更爱不释手。

要写出 Pythonic(优雅的、地道的、整洁的)代码,还要平时多观察那些大牛代码,Github 上有很多非常优秀的源代码值得阅读,比如:requests、flask、tornado,这里小明收集了一些常见的 Pythonic 写法,帮助你养成写优秀代码的习惯。

01. 变量交换

Bad

tmp = a
a = b
b = tmp

Pythonic

a,b = b,a

02. 列表推导

Bad

my_list = []
for i in range(10):
    my_list.append(i*2)

Pythonic

my_list = [i*2 for i in range(10)]

03. 单行表达式

虽然列表推导式由于其简洁性及表达性,被广受推崇。

但是有许多可以写成单行的表达式,并不是好的做法。

Bad

print 'one'; print 'two'

if x == 1: print 'one'

if <complex comparison> and <other complex comparison>:
    # do something

Pythonic

print 'one'
print 'two'

if x == 1:
    print 'one'

cond1 = <complex comparison>
cond2 = <other complex comparison>
if cond1 and cond2:
    # do something

04. 带索引遍历

Bad

for i in range(len(my_list)):
    print(i, "-->", my_list[i])

Pythonic

for i,item in enumerate(my_list):
    print(i, "-->",item)

05. 序列解包

Pythonic

a, *rest = [1, 2, 3]
# a = 1, rest = [2, 3]

a, *middle, c = [1, 2, 3, 4]
# a = 1, middle = [2, 3], c = 4

06. 字符串拼接

Bad

letters = ['s', 'p', 'a', 'm']
s=""
for let in letters:
    s += let

Pythonic

letters = ['s', 'p', 'a', 'm']
word = ''.join(letters)

07. 真假判断

Bad

if attr == True:
    print 'True!'

if attr == None:
    print 'attr is None!'

Pythonic

if attr:
    print 'attr is truthy!'

if not attr:
    print 'attr is falsey!'

if attr is None:
    print 'attr is None!'

08. 访问字典元素

Bad

d = {'hello': 'world'}
if d.has_key('hello'):
    print d['hello']    # prints 'world'
else:
    print 'default_value'

Pythonic

d = {'hello': 'world'}

print d.get('hello', 'default_value') # prints 'world'
print d.get('thingy', 'default_value') # prints 'default_value'

# Or:
if 'hello' in d:
    print d['hello']

09. 操作列表

Bad

a = [3, 4, 5]
b = []
for i in a:
    if i > 4:
        b.append(i)

Pythonic

a = [3, 4, 5]
b = [i for i in a if i > 4]
# Or:
b = filter(lambda x: x > 4, a)

Bad

a = [3, 4, 5]
for i in range(len(a)):
    a[i] += 3

Pythonic

a = [3, 4, 5]
a = [i + 3 for i in a]
# Or:
a = map(lambda i: i + 3, a)

10. 文件读取

Bad

f = open('file.txt')
a = f.read()
print a
f.close()

Pythonic

with open('file.txt') as f:
    for line in f:
        print line

11. 代码续行

Bad

my_very_big_string = """For a long time I used to go to bed early. Sometimes, \
    when I had put out my candle, my eyes would close so quickly that I had not even \
    time to say “I’m going to sleep.”"""

from some.deep.module.inside.a.module import a_nice_function, another_nice_function, \
    yet_another_nice_function

Pythonic

my_very_big_string = (
    "For a long time I used to go to bed early. Sometimes, "
    "when I had put out my candle, my eyes would close so quickly "
    "that I had not even time to say “I’m going to sleep.”"
)

from some.deep.module.inside.a.module import (
    a_nice_function, another_nice_function, yet_another_nice_function)

12. 显式代码

Bad

def make_complex(*args):
    x, y = args
    return dict(**locals())

Pythonic

def make_complex(x, y):
    return {'x': x, 'y': y}

13. 使用占位符

Pythonic

filename = 'foobar.txt'
basename, _, ext = filename.rpartition('.')

14. 链式比较

Bad

if age > 18 and age < 60:
    print("young man")

Pythonic

if 18 < age < 60:
    print("young man")

理解了链式比较操作,那么你应该知道为什么下面这行代码输出的结果是 False

>>> False == False == True
False

15. 三目运算

这个保留意见。随使用习惯就好。

Bad

if a > 2:
    b = 2
else:
    b = 1
#b = 2

Pythonic

a = 3

b = 2 if a > 2 else 1
#b = 2